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Dietary Compounds, Epigenetic Modifications and Metabolic Diseases

[ Vol. 11 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Valeria Sorrenti*, Rosaria Acquaviva, Jennifer Cosenza and Claudia Di Giacomo   Pages 110 - 126 ( 17 )

Abstract:


Background: Extensive research in the last decade has clearly shown the close relationship between dietary habits, food intake, and gene expression, which is also determined by the action of dietary compounds on chromatin regulation.

Objective: Epigenetic modifications are referred to the change in gene expression without changing in DNA sequence.

Methods: Recent studies revealed that epigenetic modulations such as DNA methylation, histone modification (acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation), and chromatin remodeling provide significant contributions to the development of human diseases, including obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, epigenetic information from the intrauterine and early developmental environments also contributes to the adult metabolic states in both humans and mice.

Results: There is accumulating evidence for a role for epigenetic changes in the process of metabolic memory and diabetes-associated complications. Nutrient-induced chromatin epigenetic changes via DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, significantly contribute to metabolic regulation.

Conclusion: In this review we will focus on how dietary components which are widely present in daily dietary, acting on epigenetic mechanisms, may exhibit various effects on metabolic diseases.

Keywords:

Epigenetic modifications, obesity, diabetes, metabolic diseases, dietary compounds, gene expression.

Affiliation:

Department of Drug Science, Section of Biochemistry University of Catania, v.le A. Doria 6, I-95125 Catania, Department of Drug Sciences, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Department of Drug Sciences, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Department of Drug Sciences, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania

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